Wed, Jan 19, 2022

European Diplomacy – Theory and Definitions

  • 02/15/2019 - by Demostene Olariu

As we discussed in more interviews, European democracy has become a culture, aligned with new living standards and with increasing demands from the countries that have joined this “Way of Life and Western Culture.”

In this paper, I will first address the young people, the students, and that is why we will try to show what is the definition of diplomacy in the eyes of the great theorists and specialists of diplomacy.

The use of the terms “diplomacy” or “diplomatic” originates from the way in which international relations are managed. The term “diplomacy” has been used in English since 1645.

In 1693, Leibniz published the Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus, and in 1726 Jean Dumont printed the collections of treaties entitled Corps universel diplomatique duDroit des Gens. In both cases, the term refers to collections of documents on international relations.

It has also been extended to those who have been dealing with these issues. Today, diplomacy means the auxiliary science of history devoted to the way documents are drawn up and authenticated.

Of the definitions given to diplomacy, I selected a few. Diplomat and researcher Herman F. Eilts begins the analysis of diplomacy with a definition given in 1604: “An ambassador is an honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his country.”

It belongs to the British diplomat Sir Henry Wotton, who, on his way to Venice, stopped at Augsburg in a friend’s house. On leaving, at the request of the host, he wrote these jokes in the “guest book of honour”. Eight years later, a journalist discovers and publishes them, causing great inconvenience to British diplomacy and, above all, to their author. As a vengeance towards the end of his career, being asked by a young man how an adversary can be confused, he responded briefly: “Tell the truth”, which is often confirmed in practice.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, De Flassan wrote :

“Diplomacy is the expression by which, for a number of years, the science of external relations, which is based on diplomas or written documents issued by the sovereigns, is designated. Diplomacy is not the same as diplomacy; it has as its object the knowledge of books, their age and their authenticity. “

Charles de Martens, in the Diplomatic Guide of 1866, defines diplomacy as “the science of foreign affairs or foreign affairs of states or, in a narrower sense, the science or art of negotiations”.

At the same time, the author continues:

“Diplomacy, from a theoretical point of view, can be considered as having determined principles, because it is founded on more or less positive notions and because it has a specific and distinct object, relationships that exist or must exist between different states. In the most used sense, it is the science of foreign affairs or foreign affairs of states or, in a narrower sense, the science or art of negotiations “

Ernest Satow, a British diplomat in the first decades of the twentieth century and author of a diplomatic guide, believes that:

“This is the way of applying intelligence and tact to the leadership of official relations between the governments of the independent states, sometimes extending to relationships with the old neighbouring”.

H. Nicolson gives the following definition:

“Diplomacy is the leadership of international relations through negotiation; is the method used by consuls and ambassadors to regulate and maintain these relationships. “

French diplomat Jean Serres, who was also concerned about the theoretical work on diplomacy and protocol, believes that:

“Diplomacy is the art of peacefully regulating the difficulties that may arise between states.

Diplomats are its executors. “

In a new, relatively recent work, we find a more detailed presentation:

“Diplomacy governs relations between states. This is the art of attracting sympathy for his country and surrounding it by friends, protecting his independence and also peacefully settling international conflicts. “

As a result, “The aim of diplomacy is, based on the use of peaceful methods and the practice of reconciliation, to tighten a country’s ties with allied governments, develop friendly relations with neutral countries, and also to respect hostile governments.”

For an American author, James Rives Childs, “The art of diplomacy is to make the policy of an understandable government and, if possible, accepted by other governments. Politics is, therefore, the essence of foreign relations;

diplomacy is the process through which politics is fulfilled. ”

There are three definitions on the cover of L. Dembinski’s work:

diplomacy – art and practice in international relations; good behaviour in international relations, tact;

diplomat – a practitioner of diplomacy; person accredited to the government of another State; a person with diplomatic skills;

diplomatic = diplomatic (diplomatic bag, diplomatic corps, diplomatic immunity).

“… through diplomacy understand the dialogue between independent states …

I think it is a mistake to bind too much the concept of embassy diplomacy and diplomatic services, as is often the case. These institutions form only a way of achieving the dialogue … I also found it preferable not to use the word diplomacy synonymous with a state’s foreign policy, although this use is frequent … It is worth distinguishing between foreign policy as the substance of a state’s relations with other powers … and diplomacy as a process of dialogue and negotiation, through which states in a system organize their relations and pursue their goals by peaceful means. ”

W. Watson, diplomat and author of several studies and papers on diplomacy

Another issue concerns the functions of diplomacy.

According to J. Serres, it can be characterized in four terms: representing, protecting, informing, negotiating. The representation function is the primary element. The Ambassador is the representative of his country’s government to the authorities of the country where he was sent.

He has the authority to speak on his behalf, the basis of any negotiation. Committed to receiving and transmitting communications that are changing between the two governments, he is the permanent intermediary of interstate relations, as the official source of obtaining all the information about his own country.

Another understanding of the idea of representation is equally important. It is known that diplomats are for the population of their country of residence, the image of the country that sent them.

Public conduct, as well as the ambassador’s private life and his mission, must be flawless. The moral value of agents is an essential criterion for their selection and submission. A state that knows that it is represented by a man who does not deserve respect, does not respect himself.

Each government has to give the officials the necessary means to create the authorities as well as the population the best possible opinion about their country and, above all, to lead a way of life that can be considered. Ambassadors must receive when special circumstances demand special responsibilities.

Another ambassador’s mission is to protect its own nationals as well as trade with its country.

Vigilance, as well as the imagination of the head of the mission, must be exercised to ensure his fellow citizens, the country’s pavilions and trade relations, respecting the agreements in force. He must seek to improve the status of his fellow citizens, increase trade and strengthen cultural relations, the essential elements of developing good relations and peaceful interests between the two countries. The objectivity of business scrutiny, as well as the moderation of language, are indispensable in this respect.